Microfluidic-based ion-selective thermoplastic electrode array for point-of-care detection of potassium and sodium ions

ÖZER T., Henry C. S.

MICROCHIMICA ACTA, vol.189, no.4, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 189 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00604-022-05264-y
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Analytical Abstracts, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Microfluidic, Paper-based chip, Ion-selective electrode, Carbon nanomaterial, Point-of-care devices, Potentiometric detection, PAPER-BASED DEVICE, CYSTIC-FIBROSIS, CARBON, SWEAT, POLYMER, SENSORS, STABILITY, DESIGN
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


A microfluidic paper-based thermoplastic electrode (TPE) array has been developed for point-of-care detection of Na+ and K+ ions using a custom-made portable potentiometer. TPEs were fabricated using polystyrene as the binder and two different types of graphite to compare the electrode performance. The newly designed TPE array embedded in a polymethyl methacrylate chip consists of two working electrodes modified with carbon black nanomaterial and an ion-selective membrane, and an all-solid-state reference electrode modified with Ag/AgCl ink and poly(butyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) membrane via drop-casting. Ion-selective membrane compositions and conditioning steps were optimized. Under optimized conditions, ion-selective TPEs demonstrated fast response time (4 s) and good stability. The TPE array demonstrated a Nernstian behavior for K+ with a sensitivity of 59.2 +/- 0.2 mV decade(-1) and near-Nernstian response for Na+ with a sensitivity of 54.0 +/- 1.1 mV decade(-1) in the range 10(-1) -10(-4) M and 1- 10(-3) M, respectively. The detection limits were 1 x 10(-5) M and 1 x 10(-4) M for K+ and Na+, respectively. In addition, a K+ and Na+ selective microfluidic paper-based analytical device (mu PAD) was applied to artificial serum analysis and found in good agreement with average recoveries of 101.3% and 99.7%, respectively, suggesting that the developed ISE array is suitable for detection of sodium and potassium in complex matrix.