Physico-chemical characterization and in vitro biological study of manganese doped β-tricalcium phosphate-based ceramics for bone regeneration applications

Arpak M. C., Dağlılar S., Kalkandelen C., Balescu L., Sasmazel H. T., Pasuk I., ...More

Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society, vol.59, no.4, pp.969-983, 2023 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 59 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s41779-023-00889-5
  • Journal Name: Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.969-983
  • Keywords: Cytocompatibility, Manganese doping, Physical–chemical properties, Rietveld XRD analysis, β-tricalcium phosphate
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This work evaluates the effects of manganese (Mn) doping on the morpho-structural features, mechanical performance, and in vitro biological response of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) derived bioceramics for bone tissue engineering applications. Five different Mn doping levels (i.e., 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1 wt.%) were investigated, with the β-TCP-based bioceramics being sintered at four temperatures (i.e., 1000, 1100, 1200, and 1300 °C). A densification improvement was induced when using Mn in excess of 0.05 wt.%; the densification remained stationary in the sintering temperature range of 1200 − 1300 °C. The structural analyses evidenced that all samples sintered at 1000 and 1100 °C were composed of β-TCP as major phase and hydroxyapatite (HA) as a minor constituent (~ 4–6 wt.%). At the higher temperatures (1200 and 1300 °C), the formation of α-TCP was signalled at the expense of both β-TCP and HA. The Mn doping was evidenced by lattice parameters changes. The evolution of the phase weights is linked to a complex inter-play between the capacity of the compounds to incorporate Mn and the thermal decomposition kinetics. The Mn doping induced a reduction in the mechanical performance (in terms of compressive strength, Vickers hardness and elastic modulus) of the β-TCP-based ceramics. The metabolic activity and viability of osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1) for the ceramics were studied in both powder and compacted pellet form. Ceramics with Mn doping levels lower than 0.1 wt.% yielded a more favorable microenvironment for the osteoblast cells with respect to the undoped β-TCP. No cytotoxic effects were recorded up to 21 days. The Mn-doped β-TCPs showed a significant increase (p < 0.01) in alkaline phosphatase activity with respect to pure β-TCP.