Changes in Bioactivity of Einkorn Wheat During the Maturation Period and its Effect on the Properties of Einkorn Bread

Erkölencik M. F., Kahraman B., Özülkü G., Tulukçu E., Göktaş H., Sağdıç O., ...More

TURKISH JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY, vol.48, no.1, pp.1-10, 2024 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 48 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, Geobase, INSPEC, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-10
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


  1. Immature cereals may contain higher levels of nutrients than mature cereals. So, in this study, immature and mature einkorn wheats were compared in terms of physicochemical, technological, rheological and nutritional qualities and also their bread making performances were revealed. Thousand grain weight, hectoliter weight, sedimentation value and falling number of immature and mature einkorn wheat samples were found as 23.25-32.29 (g), 72.32-79.11 (kg/hL), 15.02-18.07 (mL) and 312-341 (sec), respectively (p ≤ 0.05). Immature einkorn wholegrain flour (IEWF) contained more than twofold mineral substance than mature einkorn wholegrain flour (MEWF). Total phenolic content and antioxidant properties of IEWF were found to be higher than MEWF. Empirical rheological properties of IEWF were higher than MEWF except for softening degree. The G' of IEWF and MEWF were always found higher than the G'' and therefore they  exhibited elastic behavior. Brightness values of crust colors of breads made of IEWF and MEWF were significantly different from bread made of commercial wheat wholegrain flour (CWF), but similar values were obtained for crumb colors. The overall acceptability score of IEWF bread was similar to CWF bread, thus IEWF could be a good candidate for bread making or use in different food formulations.