Preparation and Characterization of Graphene-Based 3D Biohybrid Hydrogel Bioink for Peripheral Neuroengineering

Yildiz A. P. Z., Darici H., Yavuz B., ABAMOR E. Ş., Ozdemir C., Yasin M. E., ...More

JOVE-JOURNAL OF VISUALIZED EXPERIMENTS, no.183, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3791/63622
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, EMBASE, INSPEC, MEDLINE
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Peripheral neuropathies can occur as a result of axonal damage, and occasionally due to demyelinating diseases. Peripheral nerve damage is a global problem that occurs in 1.5%-5% of emergency patients and may lead to significant job losses. Today, tissue engineering-based approaches, consisting of scaffolds, appropriate cell lines, and biosignals, have become more applicable with the development of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technologies. The combination of various hydrogel biomaterials with stem cells, exosomes, or bio-signaling molecules is frequently studied to overcome the existing problems in peripheral nerve regeneration. Accordingly, the production of injectable systems, such as hydrogels, or implantable conduit structures formed by various bioprinting methods has gained importance in peripheral neuro-engineering. Under normal conditions, stem cells are the regenerative cells of the body, and their number and functions do not decrease with time to protect their populations; these are not specialized cells but can differentiate upon appropriate stimulation in response to injury. The stem cell system is under the influence of its microenvironment, called the stem cell niche. In peripheral nerve injuries, especially in neurotmesis, this microenvironment cannot be fully rescued even after surgically binding severed nerve endings together. The composite biomaterials and combined cellular therapies approach increases the functionality and applicability of materials in terms of various properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, and processability. Accordingly, this study aims to demonstrate the preparation and use of graphene-based biohybrid hydrogel patterning and to examine the differentiation efficiency of stem cells into nerve cells, which can be an effective solution in nerve regeneration.