As acknowledged in almost all monographs on the fracture of composite materials, one of the major fracture mechanism in unidirectional fibrous composites under uniaxial compression along the reinforcing elements is the stability loss of the material structure (the structural instability). According to this mechanism, theoretical investigations of the fracture along the fibres are reduced to those of the stability loss in the material structure, and the value of external critical forces is accepted as the value of failure forces. At present, numerous theoretical investigations have been carried out in this field with the use of the three-dimensional linearized theory of stability in the framework of the piecewise-homogeneous body model. However, in all the investigations it is assumed that the matrix and the fibre material are isotropic. It is evident that in many cases it is necessary to take into account the anisotropy of the matrix material when investigating the stability loss of fibres. In view of the above, in the framework of the piecewise-homogeneous body model using the three-dimensional linearized theory of stability, the present paper considers the stability loss of the fibre in the anisotropic (transversally isotropic) matrix. The effect of the properties of the matrix material on the critical values of the external loading is examined.