Medical Oncology, vol.40, no.1, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.Royal jelly is a gelatinous nutrient secretion produced by the mandibular glands of young worker honey bees and has a critical role in honey bee life. In the honey bee colonies, queen and worker honey bees have very different morphologies and behaviors due to their diet in the larval period, despite having the same genome. In comparison, queen bees formed from larvae that feed royal jelly exclusively, and worker bees formed from larvae that feed on much less royal jelly. DNA methylation has been shown to play a critical role in the development of queen and worker honeybees. Alterations in DNA methylation, one of the epigenetic mechanisms defined as hereditable nucleotide modifications that occur in gene expression without changes in the DNA sequence, are closely related to many diseases, especially cancer. Hypermethylation of CpG islands located in the promoter regions of genes causes gene silencing and tumor suppressor genes epigenetically have silenced in cancer. The inactivation of tumor suppressor genes disrupts nearly all cellular pathways in cancer. In contrast to genetic alterations, gene silencing by epigenetic modifications may potentially be reversed and used in cancer treatment. Royal jelly, which causes epigenetic changes in bee colonies, has the potential to cause a change in cancer cells. In our study, royal jelly's effects on DNA methyltransferase enzyme and gene methylation of RASSF1A tumor suppressor were investigated in human cancer cell lines (HeLa, HT29, and A549), and modifications in the gene expression profile of royal jelly were determined by next generation sequencing.