Estimation of Height Changes of Continuous GNSS Stations in the Eastern Anatolia Region during the Seasonal Variation

Creative Commons License

Ünlütürk N. T., DOĞAN U.

Applied Sciences (Switzerland), vol.13, no.14, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 14
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/app13148077
  • Journal Name: Applied Sciences (Switzerland)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: autoregressive moving average, GNSS height component, GNSS time series, meteorological parameters, simple linear regression, velocity estimation
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Estimating the height component of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations is widely known to be more challenging than estimating the horizontal position. In this study, we utilized height time series data from 37 continuous GNSS stations that were part of the Turkish RTK CORS Network called TUSAGA-Active (Turkish National Permanent GNSS Network Active). The data covered the period from 2014 to 2019, and the selection of stations focused on the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey due to its topographic characteristics and the pronounced influence of seasonal changes, which facilitated the interpretation of the effects on the height component. The daily coordinates of the GNSS stations were derived using the GAMIT/GLOBK software solution. We identified statistically significant trends, periodic variations, and stochastic components associated with the stations by applying time series analysis to these daily coordinate values. As a result, the vertical velocities of the GNSS stations were determined, along with their corresponding standard deviations. Furthermore, examining the height components of the continuous GNSS stations revealed seasonal effects. We aimed to investigate the potential relationship between these height components and meteorological parameters. The study provides evidence of the interconnectedness between the height components of continuous GNSS stations and various meteorological parameters. Simple linear regression analysis and ARMA time series modeling were utilized to establish this relationship.