The teaching of geography and rebuilding national identity in secondary schools after the 1980 military coup in Turkey

Sağdıç M.

PAEDAGOGICA HISTORICA, vol.59, no.3, pp.428-445, 2023 (SSCI)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 59 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/00309230.2021.1995882
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, IBZ Online, Periodicals Index Online, American History and Life, EBSCO Education Source, Educational research abstracts (ERA), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Historical Abstracts, MLA - Modern Language Association Database, DIALNET
  • Page Numbers: pp.428-445
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Prior to the 1980s, Turkey experienced a period of vicious political polarisation and even violent conflicts. The 1980 coup administra-tion strived to reach an agreement regarding nationalism, religion, and Kemalism. Following the military coup of 1980, the Social Studies course was abandoned in secondary schools in 1985 and the National History, National Geography, and Citizenship courses were reconstituted. Thus, the word national was placed in the front of the History and Geography courses for the first time in Turkey. The notion of National Geography in National Geography lessons mostly highlighted geographical areas settled by Turks. The overall course content was shaped by Kemalist ideology. This study there-fore critically evaluates the National Geography lessons taught in secondary schools in the aftermath of the 1980 coup. Official docu-ments from the period and textbooks are the primary resources for this research.