Folklore and garip poetry in the context of intertextuality Metinlerarasi ilişkiler bağlaminda folklor ve garip şiiri*


Milli Folklor, vol.2020, no.128, pp.19-27, 2020 (AHCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 2020 Issue: 128
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Journal Name: Milli Folklor
  • Journal Indexes: Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts, MLA - Modern Language Association Database, Sociological abstracts, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.19-27
  • Keywords: Allusion, Folklore, Garip Movement, Intertextuality, Pastiche
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: No


© 2020, Milli Folklor Dergisi. All rights reserved.Intertextuality refers to the connections of rewritten texts with tradition as well as contemporary texts. Therefore connections between texts and tradition have also been enquired. Hypothesis, problems and methods of intertextuality have been used in analyzing traditional discourse. Within this scope it is remarkable that literary texts which produced under the thumb of modern movements are based upon intertextuality methods as citation, allusion, palimpsest, pastische and parody etc. and also elements of oral culture together. Oral culture, folk poetry and the relationship between colloquial language and modern life has never fallen in value. Even within movements which assert that they ignore tradition and develop a new discourse; collective unconscious, collective memory, traditional vocabulary and oral culture can be observed. In this context Garip is a movement which claimed that they broke with tradition. However, it is interesting that poems of the representatives of this movement contain overtones of oral culture and collective unconscious. When Garip poems are considered on intertextuality basis; the enriching effect of productions of oral narrative tradition-folk songs, fairy tales, req-uiems, riddles, epic stories-can be seen obviously. In other words, oral culture extends horizons of narration and meets the seeking of Garip movement which can be summarized as “expression involving exclusivity in its manner”. In this context, it can be asserted that genres of folk literature continue their existence in modern poetry by transforming in sense and shape. It is observed that folkloric elements hold their ground in modern poetry as a rich source. In Garip poetry, although there are few examples, oral culture traces prove this indis-pensability. When the poems of the representatives of Garip movement are analyzed in the context of intertex-tuality it can be seen that they developed a new discourse by transforming and using oral culture products as folk songs, folk tales, nursery rhymes and requiems. Orhan Veli put the use of folk song and thus he transformed his style to a more harmonious structure in need of finding a new sound in poetry. For instance he benefited the genre of folk song in Destan Gibi. Oktay Rifat, besides using colloquial language and idioms, also preferred representing the tragedy of modern people with nursery rhymes and requiems. He transformed traditional genres in terms of meaning. He also wrote in style of Karacaoğlan with syllabic meter even with a pseudonym. This attitude can be seen as the proof of indispensability of folkloric elements for his poetics. Oral culture subsists in modern poetry in the context of intertextuality. Melih Cevdet Anday benefited from folklore in a new context in Bilmece. He transformed the meaning; he didn’t discuss the past. Instead he stated his momentary emotions, current inclinations or his positions against social-political events. The most important outcomes of this article is that oral culture has durability in any context and it is indispensable for literature even if it transforms in terms of form and meaning. Thus it is known that Garip movement, especially Orhan Veli fronted tradition in conse-quence of social factors such as existence of village institutes in 1940’s. This study states the benefiting of folkloric elements in Garip poetry with examples in the context of intertextuality and the transformation of these elements in terms of style and meaning.