Buried object characterization by data-driven surrogates and regression-enabled hyperbolic signature extraction

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Yurt R., TORPİ H., KIZILAY A., Koziel S., Pietrenko-Dabrowska A., MAHOUTİ P.

Scientific Reports, vol.13, no.1, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1038/s41598-023-32925-6
  • Journal Name: Scientific Reports
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This work addresses artificial-intelligence-based buried object characterization using FDTD-based electromagnetic simulation toolbox of a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to generate B-scan data. In data collection, FDTD-based simulation tool, gprMax is used. The task is to estimate geophysical parameters of a cylindrical shape object of various radii, buried at different positions in the dry soil medium simultaneously and independently of each other. The proposed methodology capitalizes on a fast and accurate data-driven surrogate model developed for object characterization in terms of its vertical and lateral position, and the size. The surrogate is constructed in a computationally efficient manner as compared to methodologies using 2D B-scan image. This is achieved by operating at the level of hyperbolic signatures extracted from the B-scan data through linear regression, which effectively reduces the dimensionality and the size of data. The proposed methodology relies on reducing of 2D B-scan image to 1D data including variation of reflected electric fields’ amplitudes with respect to the scanning aperture. The input of the surrogate model is the extracted hyperbolic signature obtained through linear regression executed on the background subtracted B-scan profiles. The hyperbolic signatures encode information about the geophysical parameters of the buried object, including depth, lateral position, and radius, all of which can be extracted using proposed methodology. Parametric estimation of the object radius and the estimation of the location parameters simultaneously is a challenging problem. Applying the application of processing steps on B-scan profiles incurs high computational costs, which is a limitation of the current methodologies. The metamodel itself is rendered using a novel deep-learning-based modified multilayer perceptron (M2LP) framework. The presented object characterization technique is favourably benchmarked against the state-of-the-art regression techniques, including Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Support Vector Regression Machine (SVRM), and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The verification results demonstrate the average mean absolute error of 10 mm, and the average relative error of 8 percent, both corroborating the relevance of the proposed M2LP framework. In addition, the presented methodology provides a well-structured relation between the geophysical parameters of object and the extracted hyperbolic signatures. For the sake of supplementary verification under realistic scenarios, it is also applied for scenarios involving noisy data. The environmental and internal noise of the GPR system and their effect is analyzed as well. Furthermore, the proposed surrogate modeling approach is validated using measurement data, which is indicative of suitability of the approach to handle physical measurements as data sources.