Optimization of Chlorella vulgaris spray drying using various innovative wall materials

Tamtürk F., Gürbüz B., TOKER Ö. S., Dalabasmaz S., Malakjani N., Durmaz Y., ...More

Algal Research, vol.72, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 72
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.algal.2023.103115
  • Journal Name: Algal Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC
  • Keywords: Aquafaba, Chlorella vulgaris, Deactivated baker's yeast, Optimization, Spray drying
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, the encapsulation of Chlorella vulgaris by spray drying was optimized by Simplex-Lattice mixture design using different wall materials such as aquafaba, deactivated baker's yeast, inulin and maltodextrin in different ratios. This is the first study in which novel and innovative wall materials such as aquafaba, and deactivated baker's yeast are used for drying and encapsulation of C. vulgaris biomass. Model responses were highly dependent on wall material ratios; encapsulation yield (38.9 %–78.4 %), chlorophyll-a encapsulation efficiency (EE) (35.8 %–98.9 %), and total carotenoid EE (52.0 %–98.8 %). In addition, physicochemical characteristics including pH, moisture content, crude protein content, chlorophyll-a concentration, total carotenoid concentration, water activity, color [a*, b*, L*, chroma (C*), and hue angle (h°)], wettability, and hygroscopicity were determined to characterize the encapsulation process. Both chlorophyll-a and total carotenoid EEs of the samples including 25 % (m/m) microalgae and 75 % (m/m) deactivated baker's yeast were determined to be >90 %. The optimal feed composition for spray drying was determined as 25 % algae with 75 % deactivated yeast.