Adsorptive removal of hazardous dye (crystal violet) using bay leaves (Laurus nobilis L.): surface characterization, batch adsorption studies, and statistical analysis


Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.30, no.1, pp.1333-1356, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-022-22278-4
  • Journal Name: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1333-1356
  • Keywords: Adsorption, ANOVA analyses, Surface properties, Inverse gas chromatography, Crystal violet, Laurus nobilis L
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, the surface properties of Laurus nobilis L. were determined by inverse gas chromatography. From this, the surface of Laurus nobilis L. was found to be an acidic (KD/ KA= 0.95). Then, the adsorption of hazardous crystal violet dye on Laurus nobilis L. was examined. For the adsorption process, the optimum conditions were determined as contact time (60 min), adsorbent dosage (1.0 g/L), agitation rate (200 rpm), and initial pH (≅ 7). The efficiencies of initial concentration, contact time, temperature, and their binary combinations on the improvement of adsorption percentage were statistically investigated via three different two-way ANOVA analyses. Adsorption data were applied to different isotherms, and it was determined that the Langmuir isotherm (r2 = 0.9998) was the most suitable isotherm for the adsorption process. The qm value was calculated as 400.0 mg/g at 25 °C from the Langmuir isotherm. According to kinetic models, it was observed that the adsorption occurred in three steps. According to enthalpy (+ 7.52 kJ/mol), activation energy (+ 8.91 kJ/mol), and Gibbs free energy (− 30.0 kJ/mol) values, it was determined that the adsorption occurred endothermically and spontaneously. As a result of reusability studies, it was determined that the adsorbent could be used repeatedly. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]