This study is the first to investigate the antileishmanial activities of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) entrapped poly--caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum promastigotes and amastigotes in vitro. NSO molecules with variable initial doses of 50, 100, 150, and 200mg were successfully encapsulated into PCL nanoparticles identified as formulations NSO1, NSO2, NSO3, and NSO4, respectively. This process was characterised by scanning electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared, encapsulation efficiency measurements, and release profile evaluations. The resulting synthetised nanoparticles had sizes ranging between 200 and 390nm. PCL nanoparticles encapsulated 98% to 80% of initial doses of NSO and after incubation released approximately 85% of entrapped oil molecules after 288h. All investigated formulations demonstrated strong antileishmanial effects on L. infantum promastigotes by inhibiting up to 90% of parasites after 192h. The tested formulations decreased infection indexes of macrophages in a range between 2.4- and 4.1-fold in contrast to control, thus indicating the strong anti-amastigote activities of NSO encapsulated PCL nanoparticles. Furthermore, NSO-loaded PCL nanoparticles showed immunomodulatory effects by increasing produced nitric oxide amounts within macrophages by 2-3.5-fold in contrast to use of free oil. The obtained data showed significant antileishmanial effects of NSO encapsulated PCL nanoparticles on L. infantum promastigotes and amastigotes.