The environmental and energy problems that have arisen in Turkey because of the dramatically increase in energy consumption require the implementation of energy efficiency and microgeneration measures in the building sector which is the main sector of primary energy consumption. Since Turkey is highly dependent on exported energy resources, the basic energy policy approach is based on providing the supply security. In this regard, supporting for in situ energy production, encouraging the use of renewable energy sources and the systems such as microgeneration systems in order to meet the energy requirements of buildings would be considered as a key measure for resolving the energy related challenges of Turkey and dealing with the sustainability issues. Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of the renewable energy sources such as especially solar energy. However, this huge solar energy potential is not being used sufficiently in residential building sector which is responsible for the great energy consumption of Turkey. Therefore, this paper aims to introduce a study which investigates, on a life cycle basis, the environmental and the economic sustainability of solar Photovoltaic (PV) microgenerators to promote the implementation of this system as an option for the renovation of existing residential buildings in Turkey. In this study, main parameters which were related to the distribution of modules to be installed in flat roofs and facades and the evaluation of the PV systems were taken into account. The effect of these parameters on energy generation of PV systems was analyzed in a case study considering different climate zones of Turkey; and the decrease in the existing energy consumption of the reference building was calculated.