Intelligent Fault Detection and Classification Schemes for Smart Grids Based on Deep Neural Networks

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Alhanaf A. S., BALIK H. H., Farsadi M.

Energies, vol.16, no.22, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 16 Issue: 22
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/en16227680
  • Journal Name: Energies
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: ANN, CNN, deep neural networks, fault classification and detection, smart grid (SG)
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Effective fault detection, classification, and localization are vital for smart grid self-healing and fault mitigation. Deep learning has the capability to autonomously extract fault characteristics and discern fault categories from the three-phase raw of voltage and current signals. With the rise of distributed generators, conventional relaying devices face challenges in managing dynamic fault currents. Various deep neural network algorithms have been proposed for fault detection, classification, and location. This study introduces innovative fault detection methods using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and one-dimension Convolution Neural Networks (1D-CNNs). Leveraging sensor data such as voltage and current measurements, our approach outperforms contemporary methods in terms of accuracy and efficiency. Results in the IEEE 6-bus system showcase impressive accuracy rates: 99.99%, 99.98% for identifying faulty lines, 99.75%, 99.99% for fault classification, and 98.25%, 96.85% for fault location for ANN and 1D-CNN, respectively. Deep learning emerges as a promising tool for enhancing fault detection and classification within smart grids, offering significant performance improvements.