Norfloxacin removal by ultraviolet-activated sodium percarbonate and sodium hypochlorite: process optimization and anion effect

Yazici Guvenc S., Turk O. K., Can-Güven E., Garazade N., Varank G.

Water Science and Technology, vol.87, no.11, pp.2872-2889, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 87 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.2166/wst.2023.159
  • Journal Name: Water Science and Technology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Analytical Abstracts, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chimica, Compendex, Environment Index, Geobase, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.2872-2889
  • Keywords: advanced oxidation, antibiotic removal, sodium hypochlorite, sodium percarbonate, water matrix effect
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The efficiency of UV-activated sodium percarbonate (SPC) and sodium hypochlorite (SHC) in Norfloxacin (Norf) removal from an aqueous solution was assessed. Control experiments were conducted and the synergistic effect of the UV-SHC and UV-SPC processes were 0.61 and 2.89, respectively. According to the first-order reaction rate constants, the process rates were ranked as UV-SPC . SPC . UV and UV-SHC . SHC . UV. Central composite design was applied to determine the optimum operating conditions for maximum Norf removal. Under optimum conditions (UV-SPC: 1 mg/L initial Norf, 4 mM SPC, pH 3, 50 min; UV-SHC: 1 mg/L initial Norf, 1 mM SHC, pH 7, 8 min), the removal yields for the UV-SPC and UV-SHC were 71.8 and 72.1%, respectively. HCO3-, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42- negatively affected both processes. UV-SPC and UV-SHC processes were effective for Norf removal from aqueous solution. Similar removal efficiencies were obtained with both processes; however, this removal efficiency was achieved in a much shorter time and more economically with the UV-SHC process.