Analysis of CRDI diesel engine characteristics operated on dual fuel mode fueled with biodiesel-hydrogen enriched producer gas under the single and multi-injection scheme

Lalsangi S., Yaliwal V., Banapurmath N., Soudagar M. E. M., Ağbulut Ü., Kalam M.

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.48, no.74, pp.28927-28944, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 48 Issue: 74
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2023.03.467
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Artic & Antarctic Regions, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.28927-28944
  • Keywords: Combustion and emissions, Dairy scum biodiesel, Hydrogen, Manifold injection, Multiple injections, Split injection
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: No


The present work aims to investigate the consequences of pilot fuel (PF) multiple injections and hydrogen manifold injection (HMI) on the combustion and tailpipe gas characteristics of a common rail direct injection (CRDI) compression ignition (CI) engine operated on dual fuel (DF) mode. The CI engine can perform on a wide variety of fuels and under high pilot fuel (PF) pressure. Pilot fuel injection (PFI) is achieved at TDC, 5, 10, and 15ºCA before the top dead center (bTDC), and divided injection consists of injecting fuel in three different magnitudes on a time basis and PF is injected into the engine cylinder at a pressure of 600 bar. In this work, the hydrogen flow rate (HFR) was fixed at 8 lpm constant and producer gas was inducted without any restriction. The investigational engine setup has the ability to deliver a PF and hydrogen (H2) precisely in all operating circumstances using a separate electronic control unit (ECU). Results showed that diesel-hydrogen enriched producer gas (HPG) operation at maximum operating conditions provided amplified thermal efficiency by 4.01% with reduced emissions, except NOx levels, compared to biodiesel-HPG operation. Further, DiSOME with the multi-injection strategy of 60 + 20+20 and 50 + 25+25, lowered thermal efficiency by 4.8% and 9.12%, respectively compared to identical fuel combinations under a single injection scheme. However, reductions in NOx levels, cylinder pressure, and HRR were observed with a multi-injection scheme. It is concluded that multi-injection results in lower BTE, changes carbon-based emissions marginally, and decreases cylinder pressure and heat release rate than the traditional fuel injection method.