The effect of fermentation time on the volatile aromatic profile of tarhana dough

Ozdemir N., Simsek Ö., Temiz H., Con A. H.

FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, vol.25, no.3, pp.212-222, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 25 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/1082013218815325
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.212-222
  • Keywords: Tarhana, cereal fermentation, volatile production, esters, LACTIC-ACID BACTERIA, BREAD, YOGURT, FLAVOR, CRUMB
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: No


Tarhana is a traditional food produced by fermentation of a dough prepared by mixing wheat flour, yoghurt, tomato, paprika, onion and mint. The fermentation of mixture of natural products gives the tarhana an aromatized desired food characteristic. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effects of fermentation time at home and commercial scale on the aromatic volatile profile of tarhana. In this respect, nine different tarhana dough samples were prepared at home and commercial scale and analysed for volatile and organic acid composition during fermentation which were then evaluated by principal component analysis. In all dough samples, the lactic, succinic and acetic acids were the most produced organic acids while the amounts of ketones decreased, and the alcohols, in particular the esters, increased within fermentation. Particularly, ethyl-lactate and ethyl-acetate increased significantly as well as ethyl-caprylate, ethyl-capronate and ethyl-hexanote responsible for fruity and flower flavour were also accumulated. Tarhana doughs were clustered in two main groups after five days of fermentation with principal component analysis and these clusters remained stable until the end of fermentation. As a conclusion, fermentation time determines the desirable tarhana by ensuring the formation of aromatic volatiles particularly esters. It is necessary to ferment tarhana for at least five days in order to obtain typical aromatic properties.