Global warming and environmental benefits of hydroelectric for sustainable energy in Turkey


Yuksel I.

RENEWABLE & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS, cilt.16, ss.3816-3825, 2012 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 16 Konu: 6
  • Basım Tarihi: 2012
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1016/j.rser.2012.03.028
  • Dergi Adı: RENEWABLE & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.3816-3825

Özet

Over the last two decades; technical, economic and environmental benefits of hydroelectric power make it an important contributor to the future world energy mix, particularly in the developing countries. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GWh/yr, but only 125 GWh/yr of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country would be tapped. Turkey's total economically usable small hydropower potential is 3.75 GWh/yr. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be about 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy sources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Environmentally friendly energy development has enormous implications for developing countries as major emitters due to their rapid economic and population growth. With some possible options, the paper concludes that the reduction of emissions can only be achieved when policies are supportive and well targeted, standards and incentives are realistic and flexible, and the public is actively responsive to environmental degradation. Turkey's high rate of energy-related carbon emissions growth is expected to accelerate, with emissions climbing from 57 million tons in 2000 to almost 210 million tons in 2020. Carbon intensity in Turkey is higher than the western developed nation average. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. This paper deals with Turkey's renewables energy sources for sustainable environment. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.