Downgrading of detonation properties of ammonium nitrate using calcium carbonate, dolomite, and fly ash

Gezerman A. O.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS, vol.80, pp.171-178, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 80
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED)
  • Page Numbers: pp.171-178
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


A process has been developed for minimizing the detonation hazard of ammonium nitrate that is used as a chemical fertilizer, by adding calcium carbonate, dolomite, and fly ash. The detonation enthalpies and velocities of the obtained ammonium nitrate derivates were measured, revealing their suitability for application in fertilizer production. These results showed that, for a pure ammonium nitrate solution, coating with 0-20 wt% fly ash and adding a maximum of 25 wt% limestone and dolomite would eliminate the detonation problem associated with ammonium nitrate. It was also revealed that chemicals such as lead azide, lead styphnate, and mercury fulminate, which normally increase the detonation velocity of ammonium nitrate, did not do so when it contains CaCO3 (12.5%), CaMg(CO3)(2) (7.5%), or fly ash (0-20%). Even with the addition of lead salts and mercury fulminate, the detonation velocity of calcium ammonium nitrate continues to decrease. Thus, the detonation hazard of calcium ammonium nitrate can be mitigated.