Waste bull bone based reusable and biodegradable heterogeneous catalyst for alternate fuel production from WCO, and investigation of its usability as fuel substitute

Saravanan R., Sathish T., Ağbulut Ü., Sathyamurthy R., Sharma P., Linul E., ...More

Fuel, vol.355, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 355
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.fuel.2023.129436
  • Journal Name: Fuel
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Compression ratio, Engine efficiency, Exhaust emission, Waste bull bone
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: No


Fast-growing fuel demand by an increase in diesel vehicles and diesel engine applications for various sectors motivates researchers to develop alternate fuels. Though many approaches have been proposed, this investigation is unique by producing alternate fuels from the waste cooking oil (WCO) using a biodegradable, reusable, easy-to-handle, eco-friendly, and heterogeneous catalyst developed to form the waste bull bone and characterized for alternate fuel production from WCO. The zero-waste approach, eco-friendly fuel blends, and low-cost production factors were considered. The preprocessing of WCO was carried out by the bubble washes method, followed by transesterification processing for producing biofuel. The fuel blends were tested with different ratios like 20% to 80% with diesel and short out B20 grade. Further, the blends were prepared with Diethyl ether (DEE) and Ethanol. Total eight fuels (Diesel, B20, B20 + 5 wt% DEE, B20 + 10 wt% DEE, B20 + 5 wt% Ethanol, B20 + 10 wt% Ethanol, B20 + 5 wt% Methanol, and B20 + 10 wt% Methanol) were tested including pure diesel from No load to full load engine condition at two different compression ratios (15:1 & 18:1). The results reveal that B20 + 5 wt% Methanol at 15:1 compression ratio outperformed in terms of brake power of 2.64 kW, indicated power of 6.35 kW, brake thermal efficiency of 33.21%, Indicated thermal efficiency of 67.18%, mechanical efficiency of 59.14%, low brake specific fuel consumption of 0.27 kg/kWh at full load. In conclusion, the heterogeneous catalyst obtained from the waste bull bone can be used in biodiesel production, which ensures the efficient usability of the waste bull bone in the fuel-processing sector.