Novel energy management options for charging stations of electric vehicles in buildings without increasing peak demand for sustainable cities


ERDEMİR D., Dincer I.

Sustainable Cities and Society, vol.111, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 111
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.scs.2024.105552
  • Journal Name: Sustainable Cities and Society
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, Geobase, INSPEC
  • Keywords: Charging station, Electric vehicle, Electricity grid availability, Energy management, Energy storage, Peak load, Sustainable city
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Electric vehicles are recognised as a critical step in making the transportation sector more environmentally friendly, especially when powered by renewable energy sources. A major hindrance to their widespread adoption is the scarcity of charging stations and the absence of grid access. This study explores and examines four distinct ways to enhance the energy grid of buildings. The primary goal of these solutions is to generate more capacity without raising the peak electricity load of the building through the incorporation of energy storage technologies. The target location is Southern Ontario, Canada, which is one of most populated regions in Canada. Strategy 3 stands out as the most promising alternative, with an impressive 35 % increase in charging station capacity compared to other strategies. Using this method, it is feasible to store 353.4 GWh of energy during the summer and 480.1 GWh during the winter. In summer, the station can release 243.1 GWh, and in the winter, 345.6 GWh of energy can be efficiently used to charge electric vehicles. Strategy 4, which includes hydrogen generation and fuel cell systems, offers a competitive alternative with a 28 % increase in capacity. This method allows for charging station capabilities of 52 GW during the summer and 13 GW during the winter. The strategies emphasize the importance of adaptable capacity solutions to address variations in demand on a seasonal and daily basis while considering both economic and environmental sustainability. As the adoption of electric vehicles continues to rise, the nuanced operational aspects of these strategies are pivotal for the development of sustainable and efficient transportation ecosystems, ensuring that electric vehicle charging infrastructure keeps pace with the growing demand.