Investigation and Optimization of Integrated Electricity Generation from Wind, Wave, and Solar Energy Sources

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Energies, vol.17, no.3, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 17 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/en17030603
  • Journal Name: Energies
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: electricity generation, energy, exergy, multi-source systems, optimization, power, renewable energy, response surface methodology, solar energy, wave energy, wind energy
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This study investigates the potential for renewable energy-based electricity generation using existing wave, wind, and solar energies in Türkiye. A significant part of Türkiye’s energy needs is still met using fossil fuels. Considering the country’s resources, renewable energy sources appear as an alternative source to meet these needs. The objective of this study is to find an effective, efficient, economical, environmentally friendly, and sustainable way to produce electricity to reach net-zero targets and transition towards low-carbon and carbon-free energy systems. To be able to make a deep investigation about the relevant issue, six provinces from different regions of Türkiye (Antalya, Çanakkale, İstanbul, İzmir, Kırklareli, and Muğla) are assessed in terms of wave, wind, and solar energy potential, including wave data, wind speeds, sunshine duration, and global radiation values. Wind, wave, and solar energy data of the selected regions were taken from the ERA5 database, which is the weather forecast model of the European Center for Medium-Term Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of the Republic of Türkiye and the General Directorate of Meteorology. Calculations were made using monthly data for the last 5 years. Considering the coastal lengths in the determined regions, the annual total electrical power produced from wave, solar, and wind energies was calculated. In these calculations, the coastal length parameter was assumed to be uniform across all cities, and the electrical power potential from these energy sources was analyzed. Within the framework of these analyses, the number of houses in the selected regions whose electricity needs can be met was calculated. As a result, the potential electrical power and the amount of affordable housing units in the selected regions were compared. As an important result of the studies, it was determined that the characteristic features of the selected regions, such as wavelength, wave height, and wind speed, were directly related to the applicable coast length. The power obtained from wave energy was higher than that from other renewable energy sources, considering the determined coast lengths. Wave energy was followed by parabolic solar collector, wind, and photovoltaic solar energy systems. According to the model, the power obtained from renewable energy systems was at the highest level in the Kırklareli/Demirköy province compared to other locations. Kırklareli was followed by İstanbul, Antalya, İzmir, Muğla, and Çanakkale. It was also found that the electricity needs of 763,578 houses were met in the Kırklareli/Demirköy region, and the electricity needs of 470,590 houses were met in the Çanakkale/Ayvacık region. The statistically optimized factors using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for wind, photovoltaic, parabolic solar collector, and wave power were reported as 995.278, 4529.743, 2264.546, and 276,495.09, respectively. The optimal factors aim to achieve a total electricity generation rate of 2.491 × 109 (kWh/year), a total number of houses of 682,590.55 (number/year), and a total cost of USD 813,940,876. In line with the results obtained, the Kırklareli/Demirköy region becomes favorable when considering wave and wave-integrated wind and solar energies. The proposed system has the potential to meet the entire electricity demand of the Kırklareli province based on data from the Republic of Türkiye Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA).