Morphological, physiological and molecular changes were investigated in in vitro salt-stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Tokak). Mature embryos were cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium containing 0 (control), 50 and 100 mM NaCl for 20 days. Both concentrations inhibited shoot growth, decreased fresh weight and protein content, and increased SOD (EC 220.127.116.11) activity in a dose-dependent manner. The lower concentration increased root growth. Salinity caused nucleotide variations in roots, but did not affect shoot DNAs. The higher concentration caused methylation changes, mainly hypermethylation in shoots. This is the first study on genetic and epigenetic effects of salinity in barley.