A scale for monitoring students’ tendencies to ubiquitous learning environments

Erkul D., Kert S. B.

Yıldız Journal of Educational Sciences, vol.7, no.1, pp.1-11, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)


In this study, the gender-based tendencies of university students towards ubiquitous learning environments were analyzed. Within that scope, first, a tendency scale was developed. In the development process of the scale, the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were conducted. To that end, a two-stage application process was enacted. Throughout the process, all participant data was employed in the tendency analyses which were conducted comparatively to gender. Students from different universities, 276 in the first stage and 211 students in the second stage formed a participant group consisting of a total of 487 students. At the end of the analyses, a final scale form with 20 items was developed. After the scale development process, university students’ tendencies towards u-learning environments were analyzed with factor-based and item-based comparisons. it was found that, on the basis of scale total scores and sub-factor scores, the female participants displayed a significantly higher tendency towards using ubiquitous learning environments than the male participants. The comparative analysis for each of the scale item was presented in the paper.