The effects of ammonia addition on the emission and performance characteristics of a diesel engine with variable compression ratio and injection timing


International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.64, pp.186-195, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 64
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2024.03.206
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Artic & Antarctic Regions, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.186-195
  • Keywords: Ammonia, Compression ratio, Emissions, Engine performance, Injection timing
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Ammonia, future of the carbonless marine fuel, presents significant potential in achieving zero-emission targets within maritime transportation. In this context, this study explores the use of an ammonia/diesel fuel mixture in a diesel engine, employing both experimental and numerical methods. We focus on the impact of injection timing and compression ratio to optimize the engine while using ammonia/diesel mixture in terms of both engine performance and exhaust emissions. The results show a decrease in engine power with an increasing content of ammonia, reaching the lowest power of 4.53 kW at 60% ammonia content. On the other hand, the increase in compression ratio generally enhances engine power. Thermal efficiency shows an increase up to 40% ammonia content, followed by a decline. CO2 emissions significantly reduce with an increase in ammonia content, reaching the lowest level, especially at 60% ammonia content. NO emissions rise with increasing ammonia content up to 40%. Furthermore, increasing the compression ratio reduces CO2 emissions and contributes to an increase in NOx emissions. These findings have assessed the potential usage of ammonia-diesel fuel mixture with regards to environmental impacts and energy efficiency in internal combustion engines.