© 2021 Hindawi Limited. All rights reserved.The increased focus of people on the quality of health care in recent years has led hospital owners to develop strategies and policies to improve medical services through the establishment of new hospitals. For hospitals to be competitive, the hospital's location and proximity to potential patients are considered crucial factors in establishing new hospitals. In this context, evaluating and selecting the most suitable hospital location to establish a new hospital from the multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) perspective is a priority for the entrepreneurs or government to gain a competitive advantage. Therefore, this study aims to present a systematic literature review of the hospital location selection problem considering the applied methods and application areas. The preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis statement (PRISMA) are used as a reference framework. Initially, known electronic databases (Web of science, IEEEXplore, Scopus, Science direct, and Google Scholar) were searched up to the early 2021. A number of 47 articles are selected and analyzed under this systematic framework based on inclusion-exclusion points. State-of-the-art developments in adopting MCDM methods and their fuzzy extensions are summarized. All the articles have been examined in a systematic taxonomy to find answers to six research questions (trend, country of origin, outlet journal, MCDM methods used, MCDM environment and criteria type, and decision criteria used). Results show that (1) AHP and GISbased MCDM models are the most contributing approaches to the solution of this problem, (2) location selection criteria are mostly cost, demand, environment, population, government, competition in the market, and distance to some important places, (3) the fuzzy structure is also preferred in addition to the MCDM structure depending on the crisp data type, and (4) the location selection criteria are mostly considered subjective. We pay attention to promising directions that can dominate future research in this field from a methodological or applicability perspective. This study shows the current views and opportunities for researchers and practitioners and acts as a guide to encourage more creative studies in this field.