Transformation In The History Of The Fasıl and The Accompaniment Traditions In Direklerarası Fasıl


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Baloğlu B. Ş. , Büyükduman B.

Rast Müzikoloji Dergisi, vol.9, no.2, pp.2783-2804, 2021 (Refereed Journals of Other Institutions)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 9 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.12975/rastmd.2021925
  • Title of Journal : Rast Müzikoloji Dergisi
  • Page Numbers: pp.2783-2804

Abstract

One of the Turkish music performance traditions from the last times of the Ottoman Empire to the present, “fasıl” constitutes a special place. In addition to the special meaning of performing several pieces in the same maqam with a specific sequence from slow to moving, fasıl has also been used to explain any musical performance and has a broad meaning. The differences between the “classical fasıl” that appeared at the beginning of the nineteenth century and the “direklerarası fasıl” at the end of the same century, in terms of content and presentation necessitates an explanation of this dramatic transformation in the light of the data. The repertoire, the performers, and the performance style formed in this culture are farfrom the simplicity dictated by the European notation, which has been widely used for the last hundred years. It is clear that the style with velvele of rhythm instruments used in the fasıl have a relationship with the additional notes made by the plectrum instruments in long sounds. In this study, the historical traces of the transformation in fasıl styles will be traced, and the effects of plectrum and rhythm instruments on fasıl music in the direklerarası fasıl tradition will be examined.

In this study, in which the data analysis method, one of the qualitative research methods, is used, the transition from the classical fasıl to the direklerarası fasıl is explained by associating it with political changes. Because, with the modernism that gradually took over the social life, in the last century of the Ottoman Empire, daily life became active, and partnerships were seen between the palace bureaucrats and the city as never before. The traces of the common musical taste in the last period of the Ottoman Empire were traced in the memories of the performers and the audience in places such as coffee houses, taverns, and casinos, and information aboutthe repertoires and performers of direklerarası fasıl after the Republic was given. To show the direklerarası fasıl style, four different pieces, which are definitely used in fasil repertoires, have been analyzed on musical notes. Two of them are “Peşrev” in “Ağır Düyek” and “Devr-i Kebir”; the other two are songs in the “Ağır Aksak” and “Sengin Semâi” styles. Performance samples were selected from the performances of three different musical groups. The analyzes are shown on the note with the original score of the piece, the additions of the plectrums, and the velvele of the percussion instruments in three separate parts. As a result, it has been understood that despite the changes in the political conjuncture that affects the functioning of music, the tradition of direklerarası fasıl still continues. Today, instrumentalists are widely trained to become soloists. However, for the continuation of the direklerarası fasıl tradition, which continues to come to life by chance in the modern world, the ornamental forms created by the fasil style should be utilized to the maximum extent in instrument education. The unity of rhythm and plectrum instruments should also be dictated during the education process.

Osmanlı’nın son zamanlarından günümüze kadar uzanan Türk müziği icra geleneklerinden “fasıl” özel bir yer teşkil eder. Aynı makamda birkaç eserin ağırdan hareketliye belli bir dizilimle icra edilmesi özel anlamının yanı sıra fasıl, herhangi bir musiki icrasını açıklamak için de kullanıla gelmiş, geniş bir anlama malik olmuştur. Ondokuzuncu yüzyıl başında beliren “klasik fasıl” ile aynı yüzyılın sonundaki “direklerarası fasıl”ın içerik ve sunum açısından farkları bulunması, veriler doğrultusunda bu dramatik dönüşümün de açıklanmasını gerektirmektedir. Repertuar, icracılar ve bu kültür içinde oluşan icra üslubu, yaklaşık son yüz yıldır yaygın olarak kullanılan Avrupa notasının dikte ettiği yalınlıktan çok uzak bir konumdadır. Fasılda kullanılan ritm sazların velveleli üslubu ile mızraplı sazların uzun seslerde yaptıkları ilave notaların birbiriyle ilgisi olduğu açıktır. Bu çalışmada, fasıl üsluplarındaki dönüşümün tarihsel izleri sürülecek ve direklerarası fasıl geleneğinde mızraplı ve ritm sazların fasıl müziğine etkileri irdelenecektir.