Sustainable and smart electric bus charging station deployment via hybrid spherical fuzzy BWM and MULTIMOORA framework

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Deniz R., AYDIN N.

Neural Computing and Applications, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00521-024-09788-7
  • Journal Name: Neural Computing and Applications
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Applied Science & Technology Source, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, Index Islamicus, INSPEC, zbMATH
  • Keywords: BWM, Electric bus charging, MCDM, Multi-criteria, MULTIMOORA, Spherical fuzzy
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This study aims to assist public bus operators in locating electric bus charging station (EBCS) facilities from a smart and sustainable view. The selection of the most suitable EBCSs from various possible candidates involves a sophisticated decision-making procedure in terms of several contradictory criteria with imprecise information. The novelty of the study resides in exploring the EBCS site selection problem with spherical fuzzy sets (SFSs), which have shown remarkable effectiveness in limiting information loss by seizing ambiguous, and uncertain data. In this regard, a novel best–worst method (BWM) incorporating Multi-objective optimization via full multiplicative form ratio analysis (MULTIMOORA) methodology in the spherical fuzzy context is proposed to choose the optimal locations for EBCSs. The integrated framework combines the adaptability of the spherical fuzzy BWM (SF-BWM) for determining the criteria weights with the convenience of spherical fuzzy MULTIMOORA (SF-MULTIMOORA) approach for ranking the alternatives. A case study for Istanbul is provided to substantiate the propounded technique and to confirm its viability and efficiency. In the course of making a decision, a four-level hierarchical structure consisting of five main and 22 sub-criteria is built and the comparison matrices are reviewed by a panel of seven experts. A sensitivity analysis is executed, and the results demonstrate that the propositioned approach produces outcomes that are quite robust and consistent. Hence, the findings of this research can benefit public bus operators in choosing the ideal sites for electric charging stations. Finally, the formulated generic methodology is also easily applicable to diverse and complex multiple-criteria problems in the spherical fuzzy domain.