Uluslararası Mezopotamya Tarım Kongresi , Diyarbakır, Türkiye, 22 - 25 Eylül 2014, ss.1112
Rice is the staple food for a large portion of the world’s population and the annual world rice production is more than 680 million tons. The primary waste product of the rice industry is rice bran, of which approximately 76 million tons are produced every year and in developing countries commonly used in animal feed or discarded as a waste. Rice bran contains appreciable quantities of nutrients like protein, fat, and dietary ﬁber. Furthermore, it contains substantial amount of minerals like K, Ca, Mg, and Fe and antioxidants like tocopherols, tocotrienols, and γ –oryzanol. There are two different kinds of rice bran available from the rice-processing industry: rice bran and de-fatted rice bran. De-fatted rice bran is an attractive feedstock for conversion into a variety of value-added products. One of these value added products is ethanol. Bioethanol, the principal fuel used as a conventional gasoline substitute for road transport is mainly produced by the sugar fermentation process. De-fatted rice bran is suitable for producing bioethanol because it contains many carbohydrates and cellulosic polysaccharides, and the presence of a high amount of carbohydrate (39% cellulose and 31% hemicellulose) and less lignin (4%). Current ethanol production processes using crops are not recommended due to crisis of falling global food stocks. Rice bran oil is also an important byproduct of the rice industry. Rice bran oil is considered to be one of the most nutritious oils due to its favorable fatty acid composition and unique combination of naturally occurring biologically active antioxidant compounds. Rice bran oil offers signiﬁcant potential not only as a low-cost feedstock, but also as an alternative for biodiesel production. It has also a significant amount of γ –oryzanol, which is a mixture of ferulic acid esters of triterpene alcohols. These triterpene alcohols are now widely used as active ingredient in healthy foods and as ferulic acid precursor for the production of biovanillin. That rice bran is valuable in terms of nutritional content and that nowadays consumer preference trends to healthy foods, utilizing of rice bran in food industry makes it more important.