Within the framework of a piecewise homogeneous body model, with the use of exact equations of the geometrically nonlinear theory of viscoelastic bodies, the distribution of near-surface self-balanced normal stresses in a body consisting of a viscoelastic half-plane, an elastic locally curved bond layer, and a viscoelastic covering layer is investigated. A method for solving the problem considered by employing the Laplace and Fourier transformations is developed. Numerical results for the self-balanced normal stresses caused by a local curving (imperfection) of an elastic bond layer upon tension and compression of the body mentioned along the free face plane are presented and analyzed. The viscoelasticity of the materials is described by the Rabotnov fractional-exponential operators. A macroscopic failure criterion is proposed, and the validity of this criterion is examined.