Examining transposed makams in Turkish music through machine learning: classification of Rengidil-Neveser and Ruhnevaz-Buselik pieces

Karaosmanoğlu M. K., BERKMAN E., Berkman M. İ.

Journal of New Music Research, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/09298215.2023.2240756
  • Journal Name: Journal of New Music Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Periodicals Index Online, Music Index, Music Periodicals Database, RILM Abstracts of Music Literature
  • Keywords: classification, machine learning, Makam analysis, shad-makam, Turkish music
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The concept of shad-makam is explored through an analysis of pieces in makams Rengidil and Ruhnevaz, to see whether these two are distinct structures or transposition of their antecedents; Neveser and Buselik. The analysis was performed using ML algorithms on features extracted from symbolic Turkish music data. The standard tuning and the shad-makam pieces transposed to the same pitch with original makam were examined. Falsely classified pieces were analysed qualitatively, to explain quantitative results. We determined that Rengidil is a transposed form of Neveser and should not be considered as a distinct makam. In contrast, Ruhnevaz is different from Buselik.