The dye manufacturing industry (DMI) may be characterized by acidic, strong color, high temperature and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and low biodegradability. In the literature, there is almost no information about the characterization and treatment of heavy polluted DMI wastewaters. In this study, two-phase anaerobic biological treatment methods, advanced oxidation processes, conventional FeCl3 coagulation and aerobic/anaerobic biological treatment methods were comparatively investigated for the treatment of the real dye manufacturing wastewater. Results show that both ozonation and Fenton oxidation are not economical for the treatment of the wastewater. Operational costs of both processes may be to be very high due to the long ozonation time and high H2 O2 consumption respectively. In addition, the destruction of unreacted oxidant after treatment in both Fenton and ozonation processes needs further treatment. FeCl3 coagulation could be removed efficiently by 80% of the COD from raw wastewater however it was determined inadequate to reduce color. On the other hand, the performances of both aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment methods were insufficient due to the non-biodegradable nature of the wastewater. Two-phase anaerobic biological treatment process exhibited the most efficient treatment method for the DMI wastewater by 97% color and 80% COD removals. The results reflect the fact that a two-phase anaerobic biological treatment process may be a promising and effective method for the treatment of non-biodegradable industrial wastewaters.