The effect of cyclic anaerobic-aerobic conditions on the biodegradative capability of the mixed microbial culture for the azo dye Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R (RBV-5R) was investigated in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with a synthetic textile wastewater. The SBR had a 12-h cycle time with anaerobic-aerobic periods of 3/9, 6/6 and 9/3 h. General SBR performance was assessed by measurement of catabolic enzymes (catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, azo reductase), chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and amount of aromatic amines. In this study, under steady-state conditions, the anaerobic period of the cyclic SBR was found to allow the reductive decolorization of azo dye. Longer anaerobic periods resulted in higher color removal efficiencies, approximately 71% for the 3-h, 87% for 6-h and 92% for the 9-h duration. Total COD removal efficiencies were over 84% under each of the cyclic conditions and increased as the length of the anaerobic period was increased; however, the highest color removal rate was attained for the cycle with the shortest anaerobic period of 3 h. During the decolorization of RBV-5R, two sulfonated aromatic amines (benzene based and naphthalene based) were formed. Additionally, anaerobic azo reductase enzyme was found to be positively affected with the increasing duration of the anaerobic period; however; it was vice versa for the aerobic catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23DO) enzyme.