SKETRACK: Stroke-Based Recognition of Online Hand-Drawn Sketches of Arrow-Connected Diagrams and Digital Logic Circuit Diagrams

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Altun O. , Nooruldeen O.

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMMING, vol.2019, 2019 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 2019
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1155/2019/6501264


Digitalization of handwritten documents has created a greater need for accurate online recognition of hand-drawn sketches. However, the online recognition of hand-drawn diagrams is an enduring challenge in human-computer interaction due to the complexity in extracting and recognizing the visual objects reliably from a continuous stroke stream. This paper focuses on the design and development of a new, efficient stroke-based online hand-drawn sketch recognition scheme named SKETRACK for hand-drawn arrow diagrams and digital logic circuit diagrams. The fundamental parts of this model are text separation, symbol segmentation, feature extraction, classification, and structural analysis. The proposed scheme utilizes the concepts of normalization and segmentation to isolate the text from the sketches. Then, the features are extracted to model different structural variations of the strokes that are categorized into the arrows/lines and the symbols for effective processing. The strokes are clustered using the spectral clustering algorithm based on p-distance and Euclidean distance to compute the similarity between the features and minimize the feature dimensionality by grouping similar features. Then, the symbol recognition is performed using modified support vector machine (MSVM) classifier in which a hybrid kernel function with a lion optimized tuning parameter of SVM is utilized. Structural analysis is performed with lion-based task optimization for recognizing the symbol candidates to form the final diagram representations. This proposed recognition model is suitable for simpler structures such as flowcharts, finite automata, and the logic circuit diagrams. Through the experiments, the performance of the proposed SKETRACK scheme is evaluated on three domains of databases and the results are compared with the state-of-the-art methods to validate its superior efficiency.