International Symposium on Applied Geoinformatics (ISAG-2019) , İstanbul, Türkiye, 7 - 09 Kasım 2019, ss.1-2
The 3D cadastre is a tool used in a land management system to digitally manage and represent layered rights, restrictions, responsibilities (legal models), buildings, public services and corresponding physical models (above or below the floor surface in 3D). A 3D Cadastre is capable of collecting, storing, organising, querying, analysing and visualising very intricate details within specific standards (Aien, 2013).
The cadastral concept was developed for the 3D Cadastral in the early 2000s. The first workshop was held in 2001; the second workshop was held in 2011 and 2012 in the third. Temporarily, many theoretical and practical developments have emerged in these workshops. However, no 3D cadastre is currently being performed anywhere in the world (Oosterom et al., 2011). There are several reasons why successful implementation of 3D cadasters is legal, institutional and technical. These reasons can be listed as the necessary legal documents, missing data models, lack of technology and data format deficiencies (Aien, 2013).
The 3D cadastre scope should be defined as ideal in legal and institutional systems. While waiting for these formalities, the development of a data model for 3D cadastre is a useful method to clarify the scope of 3D cadastre. A 3D cadastral data model is the most important for the introduction of standards (INSPIRE, OGC, LADM) and a common language within the user communities of the Land Administration. In this context, some countries (Netherlands, Australia) have developed cadastral data models (ePlan, Legal Property Object Model, LADM, 3D Cadastral Data Model) to improve their cadastral systems. Although cadastral data models differ between countries, 2D is based on the basic building block of a land parcel. The existing cadastral data models were developed based on the definition of a 2D land parcel (Kalantari et al., 2008). In line with the developed models, Netherlands, Australia, Croatia and Israel improved their existing cadastral systems and carried out studies in the scope of 3D cadastre.
In the first section, the scope and principles of 3D cadastre are discussed. And then obstacles to the implementation of 3D cadastre and international standards developed within the scope of 3D cadastre are discussed. The cadastral data models developed within the scope of 3D cadastre were analysed in Section 2. TUCBS (Turkey National Geographical Information System) project, which was established in Turkey by comparing these data models, was discussed. The Netherlands, Australia, Croatia, Israel and Turkey were compared to studies they have done to improve their cadastral system in Chapter 3. TUCBS project was evaluated in the framework of LADM (Land Administration Domain Model) in section 4. And finally, discussion and results were assessed.