Pore size variation of nano-porous material fixer on the engine bowl and its combined effects on hybrid nano-fuelled CI engine characteristics

Sathish T., Ağbulut Ü., Muthukumar K., Saravanan R., Alwetaishi M., Shaik S., ...More

Fuel, vol.345, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 345
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.fuel.2023.128149
  • Journal Name: Fuel
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Nano-porous material, Nanofuels, Waste to energy, WCO nano-fuel
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: No


Environmental research is currently one of the most significant and pertinent fields of studies. Due to CI engines' unique nature, they are widely used in densely populated cities for a variety of purposes. However, due to their improper combustion for various acceptable reasons at the engine cylinder, they considerably pollute the environment. This study prepared hybrid nano fuel from waste cooking oil by adding Al2O3 (aluminum oxide) and MWCNT (multi-wall carbon nanotubes) particles and adding ZnO (zinc oxide) nanoporous material fixture in the combustion chamber as an attachment for enhancing combustion efficiency to meet the aim of mitigating the CI engine emissions significantly. The research was evaluated in a 5.2 kW CI engine, and the ZnO nano-porous material is fixed to the combustor. Four distinct pores per inch (PPI) nanoporous materials of pore counts such as 60, 45, 30, and 15 PPI were considered to test the fuels such as diesel and hybrid nanofuel. The hybrid nano-fuel was created from the WCO biodiesel by mixing nanoparticles of MWCNT and Al2O3 nanoparticles in the ultrasonicator. The experiments were carried out at different engine loads from no load to full load with a 25% step-up. The performance of the results was compared with conventional diesel fuel with and without ZnO nano-porous material fixtures and ZnO nano-porous material fixtures with different PPI. The result exhibited that the nanoparticles-added biodiesel fuel in 15 PPI has produced less NOx emission, CO emission, and heat release rate by 55.2%, 7%, 26.5%, and 22.67%, respectively, and this combination also exhibited an improvement of 2.62% in the brake thermal efficiency. Finally, the present work proves that better engine characteristics are generally obtained as the pore size of nanoporous materials in the engine bowl gets smaller, and the hybrid nanoparticles usage in the biodiesel fuel ensures more efficient engine combustion, performance, and emission characteristics.