Fossil fuel reserves which supplying a major portion of energy needs, are depleting rapidly, and its environmental damages increases day by day. Therefore, like all developed and developing countries, our country have focused on the use of renewable energy sources. Within this scope in the our country, it was aimed gain of renewable energy sources to economy, promotion of sustainable energy production, and protection of environmental. Recently, one of the growing importance of renewable energy sources is the biomass energy. As an biomass energy source, all vegetable and animal organic substances which the main components are comprising carbohydrate compounds can be used. In these energy sources, microalgae seem promising for biofuel production due to their many advantages such as they have high photosynthetic efficiency, high biomass production, and they grow quickly. From microalgae, by using biochemical methods electricity, ethanol, hydrogen, methane and biodiesel and thermochemical methods syngas, biochar, biodiesel and electricity can be produced. In this review article, isolation of microalgae, microalgal biomass production, the methods used to biomass harvesting, and the availability of microalgae as a source of raw materials for renewable biofuels were viewed.