Real-time energy management in an off-grid smart home: Flexible demand side control with electric vehicle and green hydrogen production

Rifat Boynuegri A. R., TEKGÜN B.

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.48, no.60, pp.23146-23155, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 48 Issue: 60
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2023.01.239
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Artic & Antarctic Regions, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, Environment Index, INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.23146-23155
  • Keywords: Demand side control, Electric vehicle, Energy management, Fuel cell, Smart home
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


A real-time energy management system for an off-grid smart home is presented in this paper. The primary energy sources for the system are wind turbine and photovoltaics, with a fuel cell serving as a supporting energy source. Surplus power is used to generate hydrogen through an electrolyzer. Data on renewable energy and load demand is gathered from a real smart home located in the Yildiz Technical University Smart Home Laboratory. The aim of the study is to reduce hydrogen consumption and effectively utilize surplus renewable energy by managing controllable loads with fuzzy logic controller, all while maintaining the user's comfort level. Load shifting and tuning are used to increase the demand supplied by renewable energy sources by 10.8% and 13.65% from wind turbines and photovoltaics, respectively. As a result, annual hydrogen consumption is reduced by 7.03%, and the average annual efficiency of the fuel cell increases by 4.6%