Use of sheep slaughterhouse-derived struvite in the production of environmentally sustainable cement and fire-resistant wooden structures

Yetilmezsoy K., Dinç Şengönül B., İlhan F., Kıyan E., Yüzer N.

JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, vol.366, pp.1-18, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 366
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.132948
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-18
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Utilization of the struvite recovered from sheep slaughterhouse wastewater was explored for the first time in sustainable cement production and fire-resistant wooden structure design. Sheep abattoir-originated struvite precipitation process was optimized using a chemical combination of MgCl2.6H2O + NaH2PO4.2H2O, a molar ratio of Mg2+:NH4+-N:PO43--P = 1.2:1:1, a reaction pH of 9.0, an initial ammonium concentration of 240 mg NH4+-N/L, and a reaction time of 15 min. Based on both American (ASTM C305-14) and Turkish (TS EN 196-1) standard methods, struvite was used in proportions of 10–30% by weight for struvite-substituted cement production. The best compressive strength values were achieved with 85.5% cement clinker (C), 4.5% gypsum (G), and 10% struvite (S) for the struvite-replaced cement (C85.5G4.5S10). According to the US EPA’s greenhouse gas protocol, it was estimated that producing 10% struvite-substituted cement would result in 9.97% lower absolute CO2 emissions than producing 100% Portland cement. It was also found that slaughterhouse-derived struvite could compete with commercial water-based fire retardant solution and exhibit acceptable flame resistance behavior for wooden structures. The versatility of sheep abattoir-oriented struvite was confirmed as an environmentally sustainable and clean by-product for different structural uses.