in vitro Enzymatic Carbohydrate Digestion and Spectrophotometric Glycemic Indexes and Glycemic Loads Determination of Some Turkish Breads

Yusufoğlu B., Yaman M., Karakuş E.

Progress In Nutrition, vol.22, pp.1-9, 2020 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 22
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.23751/pn.v22i3.8895
  • Journal Name: Progress In Nutrition
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, EMBASE
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-9
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Objective: Carbohydrates are the most abundant and common organic sources in nature. They are

vital substances of whole living organisms. Bread is the main food source of people all over the world and

very important issue in human diet as a source of carbohydrate. Bread is the principal food of Turkish People

and daily average consumption is around 400 g per person. More than half of the caloric intake is supplied by

bread. Besides protein and some vitamins, it’s a basic source of mineral supply in Turkish diet. Glycemic Index

(GI) is glucose response of food as a percentage and it is generally made by in vivo methods and expressed

as a value between 0 and 100. Foods with GI value more than 70 are (bad) carbohydrates with high glycemic

index. Glycemic load (GL), measures carbonhydrate amount in one portion of one food and gives truer results

and is expressed this formula: GL=(GIxconsumed amount of carbonhydrates as gram)/100. Method: In this

study, after digestion the variety of some breads commercially sold in our country in vitro conditions, the assays

of GI and GL of these products were carried out with spectrophotometric based methods. Result: Whole

wheat bread, wheat germ bread, hazelnut-grape bread, gluten-free bread and village bread were calculated using

the values of GI and GL as reference carbohydrates using white bread. As a result, it was found that high

wheat bread, wheat germ bread and hazelnut-grape bread have higher GI values than 70 (>70), gluten-free

bread medium, and village bread was low glycemic index (<55). Conclusion: After that directly we determined

glycemic load values of different types of breads such as wheat bread, wheat germ bread and hazelnut-grape

bread have higher GL values than (> 20).