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Öner L., Akgüner C., Berilgen M. M.

1. Ulusal Genç Geoteknik Mühendisleri Sempozyumu, Erzurum, Turkey, 12 October 2016, pp.107-116

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • City: Erzurum
  • Country: Turkey
  • Page Numbers: pp.107-116
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The behavior of soils under loads, in general, is non-linear and vary significantly with

associated strain levels. A critical strain threshold value of %10-4 can be identified, after

which the stress-strain behavior of soils becomes non-linear. Strains less than this

threshold are considered as small whereas those in excess are considered as large. The

material properties of soils at various strains can be determined experimentally by

employing a variety of methods. Although, in general, they are not considered in

geotechnical engineering problems, it is nevertheless necessary to take small strains into

consideration for many analyses, such as dynamic stress-strain analyses and surface

settlements above a tunnel. The most important material property for such analyses is

initial modulus of elasticity or shear modulus, which may be determined through in-situ

and/or laboratory testing. Within this study, the initial (maximum) shear modulus of dry

sand samples are measured in the laboratory under varying relative densities, cell

pressures, and input frequencies utilizing piezo-ceramic bender elements, which are

incorporated into the triaxial equipment. This values are compared with correlations based

on laboratory and in-situ tests suggested in the literature.