Background and Objectives: The excess consumption of fructose in the diet may cause metabolic syndrome, which is associated with an increased risk of kidney disease. There is limited data on probiotic treatment in high-fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. The present study aims to investigate whether the supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and Lactobacillus helveticus (L. helveticus) could provide an improving effect on the renal insulin signaling effectors, inflammatory parameters, and glucose transporters in fructose-fed rats. Materials and Methods: The model of metabolic syndrome in male Wistar rats was produced by fructose, which was given as 20% solution in drinking water for 15 weeks. L. plantarum and L. helveticus supplementations were given by gastric gavage from 10 to 15 weeks of age. Results: High-fructose consumption in rats reduced renal protein expressions of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, protein kinase B (AKT), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which were improved by L. plantarum and partially by L. helveticus supplementations. Dietary fructose-induced elevations in renal tissue levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and IL-10, as well as expression of IL-6 mRNA, were attenuated, especially in L. plantarum treated rats. The increased renal expression of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2), but not that of glucose transporter type-5 (GLUT5), was suppressed by the treatment with L. plantarum. Conclusion: Suppression in insulin signaling pathway together with the induction of inflammatory markers and upregulation of SGLT2 in fructose-fed rats were improved by L. plantarum supplementation. These findings may offer a new approach to the management of renal dysregulation induced by dietary high-fructose.