Social studies is a field of study that involves several sub-disciplines of the social sciences and values education. As in the rest of the world, in Turkey, material, spiritual and cultural elements and sensitivities, and esteemed role models are transmitted from generation to generation. This research has importance in terms of identifying the extent to which students in education process learned about Turkish history, culture, values and concepts because it is very important for education to raise sensitive generations to be able to strengthen students' bond with past, to raise their awareness about the material and spiritual richness of their culture and to transmit this heritage in a positive way. The aim of this study is to determine students' knowledge about Turkish history and reveal their current situation. This research aims to understand the approaches of social studies students at normal secondary school, imam-hatip secondary school, private secondary school about cultural elements in Turkish history. It was carried out with 368 secondary school students in Avcılar, Bağcılar, Esenler, Kagithane, Ümraniye, Kartal, Pendik, Küçük Çekmece and Zeytinburnu districts of Istanbul province to determine their knowledge levels about the figures, written culture and concepts of Turkish history by gender. The students were asked what they knew about Turkish historical figures. In this research, the national and spiritual achievement of the Imam-Hatip secondary school students may be due to the frequency of their cultural lessons, which did not vary by gender.