A Taguchi-based hybrid multi-criteria decision-making approach for optimization of performance characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with blends of biodiesel-diesel and cerium oxide nano-additive

Creative Commons License

Khanam S., Khan O., Ahmad S., Sherwani A. F., Khan Z. A., Yadav A. K., ...More

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10973-024-12918-x
  • Journal Name: Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Index Islamicus, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Acoustic analysis, Biodiesel, Biosynthesized nanoparticles, Diesel engine, Hybrid optimization, Renewable energy, Thermal efficiency
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Given the pressing demand and ongoing necessity for fossil fuels, there is an imperative to actively seek alternative resources to replace petroleum-based fuels. The presents study considers a problem of experimentally investigating the effect of varying levels of important input parameters of a diesel engine fuelled with a novel blend of biodiesel-diesel and cerium oxide nano-additive on the sustainable performance characteristics of a diesel engine. Four input parameters, i.e., blend percentage (B in %), nanoparticle concentration (NPC in ppm), engine load (LD in %) and ignition pressure (IP in bar) each at four levels are considered. Experiments are conducted as per the Taguchi’s L16 standard orthogonal array and for each experiment, performance parameters (such as Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC)), emission measures (Carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), unburnt hydrocarbons (UBHC) and Vibration level (VL)) of the diesel engine are collected. A hybrid multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach, i.e., integrated MEREC-MARCOS method along with signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of mean (ANOM) is employed to determine optimal setting of the input parameters that yield optimal multiple performance characteristics. The results reveal that B at 40%, NPC at 80 ppm, LD at 50% and IP at 200 bar is the optimal setting of the input parameters that produce optimum values of the output responses considered simultaneously. Further, results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) show that Nanoparticle concentration percentage contribution is the maximum (79.63%) followed by engine load (8.40%), ignition pressure (6.28%), and blend percentage (2.11%). The optimization results are: BTE is 32.87%, BSEC is 0.285, CO is 0.018%, NOx is 559.6 ppm, UBHC is 28.1 ppm and VL= 19.57m2/sec which were validated with a confirmation test. Henceforth, such hybrid fuels provide sustainable energy solutions and environmental conservation simultaneously addressing the current and future demands.