Higher heating value estimation of wastes and fuels from ultimate and proximate analysis by using artificial neural networks


Waste Management, vol.185, pp.33-42, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 185
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.wasman.2024.05.044
  • Journal Name: Waste Management
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, DIALNET, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.33-42
  • Keywords: Artificial neural network, Biomass, Fuel processing, Higher heating value, Waste management
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Higher heating value (HHV) is one of the most important parameters in determining the quality of the fuels. In this study, comparatively large datasets of ultimate and proximate analysis are constructed to be used in HHV estimation of several classes of fuels, including char & fossil fuels, agricultural wastes, manure (chicken, cow, horse, sheep, llama, and pig), sludge (like paper, paper-mil, sewage, and pulp), micro/macro-algae's, wastes (RDF and MSW), treated woods, untreated woods, and others (non-fossil pyrolysis oils) between the HHV range of 4.22–55.55 MJ/kg. The relationships of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atomic ratios for fuel classes are illustrated by using ternary plots, and the effects of elemental composition on HHV was analyzed with the extensive dataset. Then, the ultimate (U) and ultimate & proximate (UP) datasets were utilized separately to estimate the HHV by using artificial neural networks (ANN). Hyperparameter optimization was carried out and the best performing ANNs were determined for each dataset, which yielded R2 values of 0.9719 and 0.9715, respectively. The results indicated that while ANNs trained by both datasets perform remarkably well, utilization of U dataset is sufficient for HHV estimation. Finally, the best performing ANN models for both U and UP datasets are given in a directly utilizable format enabling the accurate estimation of HHV of any fuel for optimization of fuel processing and waste management operations.