Modulated relay based stable election protocol for large scale wireless sensor networks


Hamad L. I. S., Dağ T., Güçlüoğlu T.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, vol.36, no.2, pp.1-19, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 36 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/dac.5379
  • Journal Name: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, zbMATH, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-19
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Internet of things (IoT) applications based on wireless sensor networks

(WSNs) have recently gained vast momentum. These applications vary from

health care, smart cities, and military applications to environmental

monitoring and disaster prevention. As a result, energy consumption and

network lifetime have become the most critical research area of WSNs.

Through energy-efficient routing protocols, it is possible to reduce energy

consumption and extend the network lifetime for WSNs. Using hybrid routing

protocols that incorporate multiple transmission methods is an effective way

to improve network performance. This paper proposes modulated R-SEP

(MR-SEP) for large-scale WSN-based IoT applications. MR-SEP is based on the

well-known stable election protocol (SEP). MR-SEP defines three initial energy

levels for the nodes to improve the network energy distribution and establishes

multi-hop communication between the cluster heads (CHs) and the base

station (BS) through relay nodes (RNs) to reduce the energy consumption of

the nodes to reach the BS. In addition, MR-SEP reduces the replacement

frequency of CHs, which helps increase network lifetime and decrease power

consumption. Simulation results show that MR-SEP outperforms SEP,

LEACH, and DEEC protocols by 70.2%, 71.58%, and 74.3%, respectively, in

terms of lifetime and by 86.53%, 86.68%, and 86.93% in terms of throughput.