Modification of the geotechnical properties, as influenced by freeze-thaw, of granular soils with waste additives

Yarbasi N., KALKAN E., Akbulut S.

COLD REGIONS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol.48, no.1, pp.44-54, 2007 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 48 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2006.09.009
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.44-54
  • Keywords: freezing-thawing, silica fume, fly ash, red mud, stabilization, earthwork applications, FLY-ASH, STABILIZATION, CONCRETE, PERMEABILITY, STRENGTH
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: No


This paper evaluates the use of waste materials such as silica fume, fly ash, and red mud in the modification of granular soils in order to remove the effects of freezing-thawing cycles. In this study, two granular soils obtained from primary rock were stabilized by silica fume-lime, fly ash-lime, and red mud-cement additive mixtures. Natural and stabilized soil samples were subjected to freezing-thawing cycles after curing for 28 days. After the freezing-thawing cycles, compressive strength, California bearing ratio, freezing-thawing, ultrasonic wave, and resonant frequency tests were performed to investigate effects of additive mixtures on the freezing-thawing properties of natural and stabilized soil samples. The experimental results show that stabilized samples with silica fume-lime, fly ash-lime, and red mud-cement additive mixtures have high freezing-thawing durability as compared to unstabilized samples. These additive mixtures have also improved the dynamic behaviors of the soil samples. Consequently, we conclude that silica fume-lime, fly ash-lime, and red mud-cement additive mixtures, particularly silica fume-lime mixture, can be successfully used as an additive material to enhance the freezing-thawing durability of granular soils for road constructions and earthwork applications. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.