Accuracy assessment of UAV-post-processing kinematic (PPK) and UAV-traditional (with ground control points) georeferencing methods

Türk T., Tunalioglu N. , Erdogan B. , Ocalan T. , Gurturk M.

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol.194, no.7, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 194 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10661-022-10170-0
  • Title of Journal : Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
  • Keywords: Orthoimage, PPK solution, RMSE, UAV


© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in photogrammetric mapping/surveying facilities has increased recently due to the developments on photogrammetric instruments and algorithms that enhance high-quality final products (orthoimages, digital surface model-DSM, etc.) in fast, accurate, and economical way. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a UAV-based post-processing kinematic (PPK) solution. To do that, two methods were implemented with PPK solution and georeferencing with ground control points (GCPs). According to the statistical results, root mean square error (RMSE) values obtained from the GCPs and PPK solutions in the horizontal component are 6.5 cm and 5.4 cm, respectively. The RMSE values in the vertical component (ellipsoidal heights) were obtained as 4.8 cm (GCPs) and 5.2 cm (PPK), respectively. The results show that UAV-PPK method can also be used to produce photogrammetric products where high accuracy (≤ 10 cm) is required without GCPs. In addition, the results obtained regarding the use of this method clearly show that it can be applied in many different fields such as agriculture, forestry, natural disasters, and geomatics.