Accuracy of Deformation Rates from Campaign GPS Surveys Considering Extended Observation Session and Antenna Set-Up Errors

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Turen Y., ŞANLI D. U.

REMOTE SENSING, vol.11, no.10, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/rs11101225
  • Journal Name: REMOTE SENSING
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Keywords: GPS time series, IGS network, Velocity estimation, Fourier analysis, GPS campaigns, ground deformation, tectonic motion, GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM, LANDSLIDE, KINEMATICS, VELOCITIES
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


GPS campaign measurements are still in use in the monitoring of ground deformation. Campaign measurements are frequently referred to because installing permanent stations are costly, and they cannot be installed at the desired density. Using the data from the International Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Service (IGS) permanent GPS stations, the duration, sampling interval, etc. of the campaign measurements can be simulated. Thus, the contribution of the campaign data to the monitoring of the ground deformation can be evaluated. In this study, we carried out an experiment with the aim of determining the deformation of tectonic plates at the selected IGS stations more accurately considering by extending the observation duration to a full 24 h length. We also made an attempt to take into consideration the antenna set up errors developing a scenario referring to the information available in the literature. We have decimated the continuous data of 40 globally scattered IGS stations into monthly intervals between 2012 and 2016 and estimated the deformation rates at the IGS stations from a continuous time series of four years. The continuous time series solutions for those stations were produced by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA. We compare velocities (i.e., the deformation rates) determined from GPS campaigns (in which the sampling was performed monthly and four-monthly) with those of the continuous data. The major conclusion of this study is that the vertical velocity estimation accuracy of the GPS campaign measurements had been improved by about 85% by extending the session duration to 24 h. The repetition interval of GPS campaign measurements as per one observation every four months produced only slightly coarser accuracy (i.e., on the average 8% poorer) than those of the measurements repeated once every month.